lm4flash.c 16.7 KB
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/* lm4flash - TI Stellaris Launchpad ICDI flasher
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 * Copyright (C) 2012 Fabio Utzig <fabio@utzig.net>
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 * Copyright (C) 2012 Peter Stuge <peter@stuge.se>
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 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
 */

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#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
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#include <stdint.h>
#include <string.h>
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#include <ctype.h>
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#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>

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#include <libusb.h>
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//#define DEBUG 1
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#define ICDI_VID 0x1cbe
#define ICDI_PID 0x00fd

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// FlashPatch Control Register: see ARM Av7mRM C1.11.3
static const uint32_t FP_CTRL  = 0xe0002000;
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// Debug Halting Control and Status Register: see ARM Av7mRM C1.6.2
static const uint32_t DHCSR    = 0xe000edf0;

// Device Identification: see Stellaris LM4F120H5QR Microcontroller Section 5.5
static const uint32_t DID0     = 0x400fe000;
static const uint32_t DID1     = 0x400fe004;

// Device Identification: see Stellaris LM4F120H5QR Microcontroller Section 5.5
static const uint32_t DC0      = 0x400fe008;

// Run-Mode Clock Configuration: Stellaris LM4F120H5QR Microcontroller Section 5.5
static const uint32_t RCC      = 0x400fe060;

// Non-Volatile Memory Information: Stellaris LM4F120H5QR Microcontroller Section 5.6
static const uint32_t NVMSTAT  = 0x400fe1a0;
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// Rom Control: see Stellaris LM4F120H5QR Microcontroller Page 531
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static const uint32_t ROMCTL   = 0x400fe0f0;
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// Flash Memory Address: see Stellaris LM4F120H5QR Microcontroller Page 497
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static const uint32_t FMA      = 0x400fd000;
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static const uint8_t INTERFACE_NR = 0x02;
static const uint8_t ENDPOINT_IN  = 0x83;
static const uint8_t ENDPOINT_OUT = 0x02;

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#define START "$"
#define END "#"

#ifdef WIN32
#define snprintf _snprintf
#define SNPRINTF_OFFSET 1
#else
#define SNPRINTF_OFFSET 0
#endif

#define START_LEN strlen(START)
#define END_LEN (strlen(END) + 2)
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#define FLASH_BLOCK_SIZE 512
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/* Prefix + potentially every flash byte escaped */
#define BUF_SIZE 64 + 2*FLASH_BLOCK_SIZE

static uint8_t flash_block[FLASH_BLOCK_SIZE];
static union {
	char c[BUF_SIZE];
	uint8_t u8[BUF_SIZE];
	uint32_t u32[BUF_SIZE / 4];
} buf;

static uint32_t le32_to_cpu(const uint32_t x)
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{
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	union {
		uint8_t  b8[4];
		uint32_t b32;
	} _tmp;
	_tmp.b8[3] = x >> 24;
	_tmp.b8[2] = x >> 16;
	_tmp.b8[1] = x >> 8;
	_tmp.b8[0] = x & 0xff;
	return _tmp.b32;
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}

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static int do_verify = 0;

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#define cpu_to_le32 le32_to_cpu

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#ifdef DEBUG
static void pretty_print_buf(uint8_t *b, int size)
{
#define PP_LINESIZE    80
#define PP_NUM_P_LINE  16
#define PP_HEX_COL     7
#define PP_ASC_COL     56

	int i, pos;
	char linebuf[PP_LINESIZE];

	memset(linebuf, ' ', sizeof linebuf);
	linebuf[PP_ASC_COL + PP_NUM_P_LINE] = 0;
	for (i = 0; i < size; i++) {
		if (((i % PP_NUM_P_LINE) == 0)) {
			if (i) {
				printf("%s\n", linebuf);
				memset(linebuf, ' ', sizeof linebuf);
				linebuf[PP_ASC_COL + PP_NUM_P_LINE] = 0;
			}
			sprintf(linebuf, "%04x : ", i);
			linebuf[PP_ASC_COL] = ' ';
			linebuf[PP_HEX_COL] = ' ';
		}
		pos = PP_HEX_COL + ((i % PP_NUM_P_LINE) * 3);
		sprintf(linebuf + pos, "%02x", b[i]);
		linebuf[pos + 2] = ' ';
		linebuf[(i % PP_NUM_P_LINE) + PP_ASC_COL] = isprint(b[i]) ? b[i] : '.';
	}
	printf("%s\n", linebuf);
}
#endif

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static int send_command(libusb_device_handle *handle, int size)
{
	int transferred = 0;
	int retval;

#ifdef DEBUG
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	printf(">>> sending %d bytes\n", size);
	pretty_print_buf(buf.u8, size);
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#endif

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	retval = libusb_bulk_transfer(handle, ENDPOINT_OUT, buf.u8, size, &transferred, 0);
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	if (retval != 0 || size != transferred) {
		printf("Error transmitting data %d\n", retval);
	}

	return retval;
}

static int wait_response(libusb_device_handle *handle, int *size)
{
	int retval;

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	retval = libusb_bulk_transfer(handle, ENDPOINT_IN, buf.u8, BUF_SIZE, size, 0);
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	if (retval != 0) {
		printf("Error receiving data %d\n", retval);
	}

#ifdef DEBUG
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	printf("<<< received %d bytes\n", *size);
	pretty_print_buf(buf.u8, *size);
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#endif

	return retval;
}

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static int checksum_and_send(libusb_device_handle *handle, size_t idx, int *xfer)
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{
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	size_t i;
	uint8_t sum = 0;
	int retval, transfered;
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	if (idx + SNPRINTF_OFFSET + END_LEN > BUF_SIZE)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
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	for (i = 1; i < idx; i++)
		sum += buf.u8[i];
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	idx += sprintf(buf.c + idx, END "%02x", sum);
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	retval = send_command(handle, idx);
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	if (retval)
		return retval;
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	/* wait for ack (+/-) */
	retval = wait_response(handle, &transfered);
	if (retval)
		return retval;
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	if (transfered != 1 || buf.c[0] != '+')
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
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	/* wait for command response */
	retval = wait_response(handle, &transfered);
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	if (xfer)
		*xfer = transfered;
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	/* FIXME: validate transfered here? */
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	return retval;
}

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static int send_u8_hex(libusb_device_handle *handle, const char *prefix, const char *bytes, size_t num_bytes)
{
	size_t i, idx;
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	/* Make sure that everything fits!
	 * START + prefix + hex bytes + END + hex checksum + '\0'
	 */
	if (START_LEN + (prefix ? strlen(prefix) : 0) + (2 * num_bytes) + END_LEN + 1 > BUF_SIZE)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
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	idx = sprintf(buf.c, START "%s", prefix);
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	for (i = 0; bytes && i < num_bytes; i++)
		idx += sprintf(buf.c + idx, "%02x", bytes[i]);
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	return checksum_and_send(handle, idx, NULL);
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}

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static int send_u8_binary(libusb_device_handle *handle, const char *prefix, const char *bytes, size_t num_bytes)
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{
	size_t idx;

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	/* Make sure that everything fits!
	 * START + prefix + bytes + END + hex checksum + '\0'
	 */
	if (START_LEN + (prefix ? strlen(prefix) : 0) + num_bytes + END_LEN + 1 > BUF_SIZE)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
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	idx = sprintf(buf.c, START "%s", prefix);
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	memcpy(buf.c + idx, bytes, num_bytes);
	idx += num_bytes;
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	return checksum_and_send(handle, idx, NULL);
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}

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static int send_u32(libusb_device_handle *handle, const char *prefix, const uint32_t val, const char *suffix)
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{
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	size_t idx = snprintf(buf.c, BUF_SIZE, START "%s%08x%s",
			prefix ? prefix : "", val,
			suffix ? suffix : "");
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	return checksum_and_send(handle, idx, NULL);
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}

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static int send_u32_u32(libusb_device_handle *handle, const char *prefix, const uint32_t val1, const char *infix, const uint32_t val2, const char *suffix)
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{
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	size_t idx = snprintf(buf.c, BUF_SIZE, START "%s%08x%s%08x%s",
			prefix ? prefix : "", val1,
			infix ? infix : "", val2,
			suffix ? suffix : "");
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	return checksum_and_send(handle, idx, NULL);
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}
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static int send_mem_write(libusb_device_handle *handle, const uint32_t addr, const uint32_t val)
{
	return send_u32_u32(handle, "X", addr, ",4:", val, NULL);
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}

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static int send_mem_read(libusb_device_handle *handle, const uint32_t addr, uint32_t *val)
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{
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	int retval = send_u32(handle, "x", addr, ",4");
	if (retval)
		return retval;
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	if (val)
		*val = le32_to_cpu(buf.u32[0]);
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	return 0;
}
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static int send_flash_erase(libusb_device_handle *handle, const uint32_t start, const uint32_t end)
{
	return send_u32_u32(handle, "vFlashErase:", start, ",", end, NULL);
}
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static int send_flash_write(libusb_device_handle *handle, const uint32_t addr, const uint8_t *bytes, size_t len)
{
	size_t i;
	char prefix[] = "vFlashWrite:12345678:";
	char by, rawbuf[1024], *buf = rawbuf;

	sprintf(strchr(prefix, ':') + 1, "%08x:", addr);

	for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
		switch (by = bytes[i]) {
		case '#':
		case '$':
		case '}':
			*buf++ = '}';
			by ^= 0x20;
			/* fall through */
		default:
			if (buf >= rawbuf + sizeof(rawbuf))
				return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;

			*buf++ = by;
			break;
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		}

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	i = buf - rawbuf;
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	return send_u8_binary(handle, prefix, rawbuf, i) ? -1 : i;
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}

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static int send_flash_verify(libusb_device_handle *handle, const uint32_t addr, const uint8_t *bytes, size_t len)
{
	size_t i, j;
	char by, rawbuf[1024], *bp = rawbuf;
	int retval, transfered;

	size_t idx = snprintf(buf.c, BUF_SIZE, START "x%x,%x", addr, (uint32_t)len);

	retval = checksum_and_send(handle, idx, &transfered);
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	if (retval)
		return retval;
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	for (i = 0; i < transfered; i++) {
		switch (by = buf.u8[i]) {
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			case '}':
				by = buf.u8[++i] ^ 0x20;
				/* fall through */
			default:
				if (bp >= rawbuf + sizeof(rawbuf))
					return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
				*bp++ = by;
				break;
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		}
	}

	if (strncmp(rawbuf, "$OK:", 4) != 0)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;

	for (i = 0, j = strlen("$OK:"); i < len; i++, j++) {
		if (bytes[i] != (uint8_t)rawbuf[j]) {
			printf("Error verifying flash\n");
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
		}
	}

	return 0;
}

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#define SEND_COMMAND(cmd) do { \
	int r = send_u8_hex(handle, "qRcmd,", (cmd), sizeof((cmd)) - 1); \
	if (r) \
		return r; \
} while (0)

#define SEND_STRING(str) do { \
	int r = send_u8_hex(handle, (str), NULL, 0); \
	if (r) \
		return r; \
} while (0)

#define MEM_WRITE(address, value) do { \
	int r = send_mem_write(handle, (address), (value)); \
	if (r) \
		return r; \
} while (0)

#define MEM_READ(address, value) do { \
	int r = send_mem_read(handle, (address), (value)); \
	if (r) \
		return r; \
} while (0)

#define FLASH_ERASE(start, end) do { \
	int r = send_flash_erase(handle, (start), (end)); \
	if (r) \
		return r; \
} while (0)

#define FLASH_WRITE(address, data, length) do { \
	int r = send_flash_write(handle, (address), (data), (length)); \
	if (r < (length)) \
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER; \
} while (0)

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/*
 *  This flow is of commands is based on an USB capture of
 *  traffic between LM Flash Programmer and the Stellaris Launchpad
 *  when doing a firmware write
 */
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static int write_firmware(libusb_device_handle *handle, FILE *f)
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{
	uint32_t val = 0;
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	uint32_t addr;
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	size_t rdbytes;

	SEND_COMMAND("debug clock \0");
	SEND_STRING("qSupported");
	SEND_STRING("?");
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	MEM_WRITE(FP_CTRL, 0x3000000);
	MEM_READ(DID0, &val);
	MEM_READ(DID1, &val);
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	SEND_STRING("?");
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	MEM_READ(DHCSR, &val);
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	SEND_COMMAND("debug sreset");
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	MEM_READ(DHCSR, &val);
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	MEM_READ(ROMCTL, &val);
	MEM_WRITE(ROMCTL, 0x0);
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	MEM_READ(DHCSR, &val);
	MEM_READ(RCC, &val);
	MEM_READ(DID0, &val);
	MEM_READ(DID1, &val);
	MEM_READ(DC0, &val);
	MEM_READ(DID0, &val);
	MEM_READ(NVMSTAT, &val);
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	/* XXX: Repeated below, why? */
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	MEM_WRITE(FMA, 0x0);
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	MEM_READ(DHCSR, &val);
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	FLASH_ERASE(0, 0);
	SEND_COMMAND("debug creset");
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	MEM_READ(DHCSR, &val);
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	MEM_WRITE(DHCSR, 0x0);
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	/* XXX: this is the same sequence of the above commands? */
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	MEM_WRITE(FMA, 0x200);
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	MEM_READ(DHCSR, &val);
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	FLASH_ERASE(0, 0);
	SEND_COMMAND("debug creset");
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	MEM_READ(DHCSR, &val);
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	MEM_READ(ROMCTL, &val);
	MEM_WRITE(ROMCTL, 0x0);
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	MEM_READ(DHCSR, &val);
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	for (addr = 0; !feof(f); addr += sizeof(flash_block)) {
		rdbytes = fread(flash_block, 1, sizeof(flash_block), f);

		if (rdbytes < sizeof(flash_block) && !feof(f)) {
			perror("fread");
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
		}

		FLASH_WRITE(addr, flash_block, rdbytes);
	}

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	if (do_verify) {
		fseek(f, 0, SEEK_SET);

		for (addr = 0; !feof(f); addr += sizeof(flash_block)) {
			rdbytes = fread(flash_block, 1, sizeof(flash_block), f);

			if (rdbytes < sizeof(flash_block) && !feof(f)) {
				perror("fread");
				return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
			}

			/* On error don't return immediately... finish resetting the board */
			if (send_flash_verify(handle, addr, flash_block, rdbytes) != 0)
				break;
		}
	}

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	SEND_COMMAND("set vectorcatch 0");
	SEND_COMMAND("debug disable");

	/* reset board */
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	MEM_WRITE(FP_CTRL, 0x3000000);
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	SEND_COMMAND("debug hreset");
	SEND_COMMAND("set vectorcatch 0");
	SEND_COMMAND("debug disable");

	return 0;
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}
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enum flasher_error {
	FLASHER_SUCCESS,
	FLASHER_ERR_LIBUSB_FAILURE,
	FLASHER_ERR_NO_DEVICES,
	FLASHER_ERR_MULTIPLE_DEVICES,
};

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static
enum flasher_error
flasher_find_matching_device(
	libusb_context *ctx,
	libusb_device **matching_device_out,
	enum libusb_error *libusb_error_out,
	int vendor_id,
	int product_id,
	const char *serial)
{
	struct libusb_device_descriptor device_descriptor;
	char descriptor_buffer[256];
	libusb_device **device_list = NULL;
	libusb_device *matching_device = NULL;
	libusb_device_handle *handle;
	enum flasher_error flasher_error;
	enum libusb_error libusb_error;

	int retval;
	int device_count;
	int device_index;

	/* Enumberate all USB devices */
	retval = libusb_get_device_list(ctx, &device_list);
	if (retval < 0) {
		libusb_error = retval;
		flasher_error = FLASHER_ERR_LIBUSB_FAILURE;
		fprintf(stderr, "Unable to get enumerate USB devices: %s\n",
			libusb_error_name(libusb_error));
		goto out;
	} else {
		device_count = retval;
		flasher_error = FLASHER_SUCCESS;
		libusb_error = LIBUSB_SUCCESS;
	}

	/* Assume no devices were found */
	flasher_error = FLASHER_ERR_NO_DEVICES;

	/* Walk the list of devices and try to match some */
	for (device_index = 0; device_index < device_count; ++device_index) {
		retval = libusb_get_device_descriptor(
			device_list[device_index], &device_descriptor);
		if (retval < 0) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Unable to get device descritor: %s\n",
			  libusb_error_name(retval));
			libusb_error = retval;
			flasher_error = FLASHER_ERR_LIBUSB_FAILURE;
			goto out;
		}
		/* Skip devices that have incorrect vendor and product IDs */
		if (device_descriptor.idVendor != vendor_id ||
		device_descriptor.idProduct != product_id) {
			continue;
		}
		/* Open each device so that we can read the serial number */
		retval = libusb_open(device_list[device_index], &handle);
		if (retval < 0) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Unable to open USB device: %s\n",
			  libusb_error_name(retval));
			continue;
		}
		/* Read the serial number */
		retval = libusb_get_string_descriptor_ascii(
			handle, device_descriptor.iSerialNumber,
			(unsigned char *)descriptor_buffer, sizeof descriptor_buffer);
		/* Close the handle as we won't need it below */
		libusb_close(handle);
		if (retval < 0) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Unable to get device serial number: %s\n",
			  libusb_error_name(retval));
			continue;
		}
		printf("Found ICDI device with serial: %s\n", descriptor_buffer);
		/* Skip devices with serial that does not match */
		if (serial != NULL && strcmp(serial, descriptor_buffer) != 0)
			continue;
		if (matching_device == NULL) {
			flasher_error = FLASHER_SUCCESS;
			matching_device = device_list[device_index];
		} else {
			/* If there's a device found already then abort */
			flasher_error = FLASHER_ERR_MULTIPLE_DEVICES;
			/* Don't try returning arbitrary "first" device */
			matching_device = NULL;
			goto out;
		}
	}

out:
	/* Ref the matching device as we'll be returning it */
	if (matching_device != NULL && matching_device_out != NULL) {
		libusb_ref_device(matching_device);
		*matching_device_out = matching_device;
	}
	/* Release the device list */
	if (device_list != NULL)
		libusb_free_device_list(device_list, 1);
	/* Store libusb error if requested */
	if (libusb_error_out != NULL)
		*libusb_error_out = libusb_error;
	/* Return the flasher error code */
	return flasher_error;
}

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static
void
flasher_usage()
{
	printf("usage: lm4flash [-v] [-s serial] <binary-file>\n");
	printf("\t-v        - Enables verification after write\n");
	printf("\t-s SERIAL - Flash device with the following serial\n");
}

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static
int
flasher_flash(
	int do_verify,
	const char *serial,
	const char *rom_name
	)
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{
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	libusb_context *ctx = NULL;
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	libusb_device *device = NULL;
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	libusb_device_handle *handle = NULL;
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	int retval;
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	FILE *f = NULL;
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	retval = libusb_init(&ctx);

	if (retval != 0) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error initializing libusb: %s\n",
			libusb_error_name(retval));
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		goto done;
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	}
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	switch (flasher_find_matching_device(
			ctx, &device, &retval, ICDI_VID, ICDI_PID, serial)) {
		case FLASHER_SUCCESS:
			break;
		case FLASHER_ERR_LIBUSB_FAILURE:
			fprintf(stderr, "Error while matching ICDI devices: %s\n",
			  libusb_error_name(retval));
			goto done;
		case FLASHER_ERR_NO_DEVICES:
			fprintf(stderr, "Unable to find any ICDI devices\n");
			goto done;
		case FLASHER_ERR_MULTIPLE_DEVICES:
			if (serial == NULL)
				fprintf(stderr, "Found multiple ICDI devices\n");
			else
				fprintf(stderr, "Found ICDI serial number collision!\n");
			goto done;
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	}

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	retval = libusb_open(device, &handle);
	if (retval != 0) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error opening selected device: %s\n",
			libusb_error_name(retval));
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		goto done;
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	}

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	retval = libusb_claim_interface(handle, INTERFACE_NR);
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	if (retval != 0) {
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		fprintf(stderr, "Error claiming interface: %s\n",
			libusb_error_name(retval));
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		goto done;
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	}

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	f = fopen(rom_name, "rb");
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	if (!f) {
		perror("fopen");
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		retval = 1;
		goto done;
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	}

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	retval = write_firmware(handle, f);
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done:
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	if (f)
		fclose(f);
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	if (handle)
		libusb_close(handle);
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	if (device)
		libusb_unref_device(device);
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	if (ctx)
		libusb_exit(ctx);

	return retval;
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}
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